", "TRUE Africa - How social media is helping atheists survive in one of the most religious places on earth", "Muslim Publics Divided on Hamas and Hezbollah", "Laws Penalizing Blasphemy, Apostasy and Defamation of Religion are Widespread | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project", "Humanist Association of Nigeria achieves formal recognition after 17-year campaign", "Nigeria's undercover atheists: In their words", "In African, Islam and Christianity are growing - and blending", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_in_Nigeria&oldid=996594820, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Some of Nigerian Christians are also Protestants. Based on the teachings of Prophet Mohammed, it first gained ground in the Northern part of the country. The Nigerian traditional religion is mostly moral. As at now, Maguzawa is also the name of a … Nigerian pepper soup is possibly one of the most traditional Nigerian dishes simply due to its versatility and ability to use a variety of different ingredients. Within the city and states of Yorubaland as well as its neighbors, a more reserved way of life expresses a theology that links local beliefs to a centrally placed government and its sovereignty over the neighbourhood or communities through the monarch, the king. Nigeria itself is home to several textile industries that go towards clothing the Nigerian people. Those who follow his teachings are referred to as Muslims. .and only the physically dead still delight in worshipping a god made of Clay soil. An offshoot of Islam called the ‘Yan Tatsine’ violently rebelled against the authorities and non-members. This tradition started long before the introduction of Christianity and Islam. This work, from the prism of qualitative analytical approach, offers to explore the character and doctrine of African Traditional Religion (ATR) as they are advantageous and essential for conflict prevention, conflict resolution, conflict transformation and peacebuilding in Nigeria. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 15:22. Fellowship of Churches of Christ in Nigeria, Cherubim and Seraphim Society The dominant religions in Nigeria are Islam and Christianity, imported to West Africa generations ago. The first wedding is traditional, the second one being in a court, while the third is in the church or the mosque. This paper critically assesses African Traditional Religion Oath Taking and resource control and management in Nigeria. Religious and ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. General Council of the Assemblies of God Nigeria In no short time during the 1980s, Christian religion had spread to the southern region of the country, to the Yorubas and the middle belt (Benin). This is not a biblical doctrine since there is nothing like the Koran or Bible. Maitatsine and his followers became separate from orthodox Islam, condemning the corruption of the religious and secular elites and the wealthy upper classes’ consumption of Western goods during the petrol boom in 1974–81. Traditional Religion. Email: chukwuma.okeke@unn.edu.ng Conflicts Between African Traditional Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, Christopher N. Ibenwa1, and Gloria Tochukwu Okeke1 They always preach peaceful co-existence and had no empathy for radical Islam[citation needed]. They practice several rituals, believe in symbols, prepare festivals, and retell tales. African churches were founded by small groups breaking off from the European denominations, especially in Yorubaland, where such independence movements started as early as the early 19th century—influenced by American and British missionaries in early 1900s and stimulated by the great revival of the 1930s. These sects have sometimes resorted to the use of violence in a bid to realizing their ambitions on the wider Islamic and Nigerian populations as a whole.[32]. [7][8], Most Christians in Nigeria live in south and central Nigeria.The largest Christian denominations in Nigeria are Roman Catholic Church, Baptists and Pentecostals.The two largest affiliations among Muslims in Nigeria are non-denominational Muslims and Sunni, belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence; however, a sizeable minority also belongs to Shafi madhhab. Nigerian Islam has become heterogenous with the springing up of many Islamic sects. This is not a scriptural tradition since there is no creed like the Koran or Bible. Also, during this period, Jehovah's Witnesses began their missionary work in Nigeria and soon spread throughout the country[50]. Before the advent of the Western missionaries in their midst, they were practicing their traditional religion. The country is somehow equally divided between Islam, Christianity and several other traditional practices. The leading Protestant churches in the country are the Church of Nigeria of the Anglican Communion, The African Church, the Assemblies of God Church, the Nigerian Baptist Convention (NBC) and The Synagogue, Church Of All Nations (SCOAN). It also plays a critical role in the culture and traditions of Candomblé, Santería, Palo, Vodou, Umbanda, many other Afro-American faiths and in some traditional African religions. Notable examples are the Izala movement,[19][20] the Shia movement, and many local Islamic sects that have limited expansion. As at the year 2005, there were over 40 million Christian population in Nigeria. [65] As in many parts of Africa, there is a great amount of stigma attached to being an atheist. [10] The majority of Quranists follow the Kalo Kato or Quraniyyun movement. Traditional doctrine started long before the advent of Christianity and Islam. These radical Muslims were inspired by Alhaji Mohammed Marwa Maitatsine. It does not promise an after-life like some other religions do. The history of Islam in Nigeria could be traced back to the old Borno Empire and also the Usman Dan Fodio era. The country also has Catholic traditionalism churches in the form of the Society of St. Pius X and the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are either non-denominational Muslims or Sunni and are concentrated in mostly the northern region of the country with some Christian population, the same way Christians dominate in the south with some Muslim population. Church of God Mission International Mambila Baptist Convention of Nigeria Church of Christ in the Sudan Among the Tiv Nigeria - Religions. Religion varies for different states and regions. Yoruba religion is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. [17] Islam was introduced to northern Nigeria as early as the 11th century and was well established in the major capitals of the region by the 16th century, spreading into the countryside and toward the Middle Belt uplands. The Edo proper, centered in and around Benin City, are of long standing in this region. Traditional religion in Nigeria is sort of “decentralized”, with each cultural group having their own set of traditional beliefs. That figure includes women who die during or Membership is open to all adults who embrace a non-idolatrous faith in God. By the 1980s adherents were back in even greater numbers, and a number of new churches had been built. Most Sufis follow the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyyah or Mouride movement. According to the World Health Organisation’s figures for 2013 on maternal mortality, 560 women die per 100,000 births in Nigeria. Presbyterian Church of Nigeria Most such facilities remained in 1990, although in many cases schools had been taken over by the local state government in order to standardize curricula and indigenize the teaching staff[citation needed]. Deeper Christian Life Ministry Aside preaching about the scripture, about the teachings/message of Christ (God), ministering to the people, conducting miracles and healing the sick, various denominations sprang up. Christianity is the most popular and most advertised religion in Nigeria. Christianity as Nigeria religion. Ifa Yoruba religion is practiced not just among the Yorubas in Nigeria but also throughout West Africa, the Americas and the Canary Islands. 1992). Its homeland is in Southwestern Nigeria and the adjoining parts of Benin and Togo, a region that has come to be known as Yorubaland. These riots were caused by the migration of the rural poor into urban towns during the dry seasons. Various religious belief today assist us to remain strong and stay focused. Traditional African religion is based on oral traditions, which means that the basic values and way of life are passed from elders to younger generation. Feb 21, 2018 – Obatala Worshippers Demand Public Holidays To Recognise Traditional Religions In Nigeria Nigeria has been urged to recognise traditional religions by declaring some days as public holidays for its adherents. At times rulers have been described as gods or as endowed with God's divinity. There are three major religious bodies in Nigeria which are the Christian religion, Islamic religion, and the traditional religion. Christianity is the most sought after religion in Nigeria. Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy. International Church of the Foursquare Gospel Traditional religion adherents under the umbrella of Traditional Religion Worshipers’ Association of Oyo State (TRWASSO) on Friday declared that … 1) The Redeemed Church, 4) Deeper Life Church, 5) Overcomers' Ministries and other new springs. These churches have spilled over into adjacent and southern areas of the middle belt. The Yoruba believe in one Supreme God, who they call Olodumare/Eledumare, Olorun and Olori. Most Nigerian Muslims are Sunni and are they base most in the northern area of the country, while Christians are concentrated most in the south. [26] There are numerous Ahmadiyya centres in Nigeria including the Baitur-Raheem Mosque in Ibadan inaugurated in 2008,[27] the Mubarak Mosque in Abuja, which is the last Ahmadiyya mosque, built in the first century of the Ahmadiyya Caliphate. The exodus of Igbo from the north in the late 1960s left Roman Catholic churches poorly attended. Established in 1914 by the Ven. Chizoba is a seasoned Information blogger, content developer and the founder of Nigerian Infopedia. Chrislam is a blend of Christianity and Islam that takes practices from both the Bible and the Quran. Some examples include the gods Oludmare of Nigeria and Katonda of Uganda. As earlier stated, three major religions exist in Nigeria: Islam, Christianity and African Traditional Religion. [35] The Boko Haram movement has been connected to the Maitatsine movement. Drinks include traditional brews like palm wine. Although Christians in Nigeria are traditionally Protestants, converts to Roman Catholic Christianity have increased to around 10.9%, and are concentrated mainly in Igboland. [36], Christian Association of Nigeria Facilitating such hours for adherents and readers of the Grail Message is - besides the dissemination of the Grail Message - one of the main concerns of the international Grail Movement. There are also about 380,000 New Apostolic Church parishes constituting about 6.5 million believers|New Apostolic Christians in Nigeria include: A Nigerian couple may decide to take part in one or all of these marriages. As earlier stated, three major religions exist in Nigeria: Islam, Christianity and African Traditional Religion. Islam is a religion founded by Mohammed, a prophet from the Arab speaking part of the world. Southern Christians living in the north, especially in larger cities, had congregations and churches founded as early as the 1920s. Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim Nevertheless, a wedding in the Anglican cathedral in Lagos was usually a gathering of the elite of the entire country, and of Lagos and Yorubaland in particular. Elders, priests, and priestesses have served as guardians of the sacred traditions. 369–370, Toni Johnson, "Boko Haram", Council on Foreign Relations, 31 August 2011, <, Jibrin Ibrahim, "Politics of religion in Nigeria: The Parameters of the 1987 Crisis in Kadana State", Review of African Political Economy, 45 (1989), 65-82. pp. In this article, we discuss about Christianity, […] African religious leaders include the sacred kings and chiefs who often serve as both spiritual and community leaders. Traditional region The traditional religion expresses a theology that associates local beliefs to a central citadel government and its sovereignty over a hinterland of communities through the monarch. Christianity is the most popular and most advertised religion in Nigeria. 1992). Many of them prefer visiting traditional healers instead of doctors when they are sick or have a problem with anything. About half of the Yoruba tribe are also recognized as Christian while the remaining half are either Muslims or in the traditional religion. Alongside most Nigerian religious adherence were systems of belief with ancient roots in the area. The middle belt and the west and southwest of Nigeria remain the hold of Protestants (Pentecostal, evangelical and indigenous spring of Christian denominations). It also plays a critical role in the culture and traditions of Candomblé, Santería, Palo, Vodou, Umbanda, many other Afro-American faiths and in some traditional African religions. Although Africa is a huge continent with many different peoples and traditional religions, some beliefs and practices are common through many of the religions. Alongside the main religious sect is the traditional belief system that without contradicting civil law manages to also govern ethics and morality amongst much of the population. In addition to ensuring access to, and the continual fertility of, both land and people, seasonal carnivals act as a spectacle for "tourism" contributing to regional productivity. All religions have a history of radical revivalism. Nigeria, the most populous African country (with a population of over 200 million in 2018),[3] is divided between adherents of Christianity, Islam and traditional religion quite similar to polytheism though the exact ratio is uncertain. It is mostly oral (oral tradition). [49] An increasing number of mission stations and mission bookstores, along with churches serving southern enclaves and northern Christians in the northern cities and larger towns, are found in the Muslim north. A lot of citizens honour their ancestors through ceremonies and rituals. Islam slowly found its way into the Middle Belt. The Church of Nigeria has about 17 million members.[48]. – Unbelievers cry out", "Atheism in Nigeria: Challenges and Opportunities - Modern Ghana", "What if Zuckerberg were a Nigerian atheist? Archdeacon T. A. J. Ogunbiyi[citation needed]. There are three types of marriage in Nigeria today: religious marriage, civil marriage, and traditional marriage. A fraternity incorporating references and insignia from the original Ogboni, is based on ancient rites, usages and customs. A number of indigenous denominations used Biblical references to support polygamy. [14] The 1963 Nigerian census found that 47% of the population was Muslim, 34% Christian, and 18% other. Every human being is believed to possess an ayanmo which eventually will be connected to the creator after death. The Nigerian Baptist Convention claims about three million baptized members. it was introduced in Nigeria in the middle of the nineteenth century by devote missionaries from British. Many Nigerians follow the moral and ethical rules of traditional beliefs. They had many gods in their pantheon. It is focused on providing well-be… [43], The Archdioceses of the Roman Catholic Church are: Abuja, Onitsha, Benin City, Calabar, Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri. [citation needed] Many Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods. Before European colonization, the Igbo lived in autonomous local communities, but by the mid-20th century a sense of ethnic identity was strongly developed. Religious affiliation in Nigeria is strongly related to ethnicity, with rather distinct regional divisions between ethnic groups. There are 3 major religions in nigeria recognized by law, christian, muslim and traditional religion. These include: Supreme God - Many African religions believed in a supreme god that created the world. Their language formerly belonged to the Kwa family of Niger-Congo languages and is now classified with the South Central Niger-Congo group (Ruhlen, 1991). Many Nigerians precedes morals instructions of traditional beliefs. Fèzè Lakay Recommended for you Alongside the main religious sect is the traditional belief system that without contradicting civil law manages to also govern ethics and morality amongst much of the population. After an isolated presence in the late 1920s,[51] the Baháʼí Faith in Nigeria begins with pioneering Baháʼís coming to Sub-Saharan West Africa in the 1950s especially following the efforts of Enoch Olinga who directly and indirectly affected the growth of the religion in Nigeria. The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people. It is also a country of stunning diversity, with some 250 different ethno-linguistic groups. All religions have a history of radical revivalism. [15] The 2008 MEASURE Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found 53% Muslim, 45% Christian, and 2% other; the 2008 Afrobarometer poll found 49% Christian, 50% Muslim, and 1% other; Pew's own survey found 52% Muslim, 46% Christian, and 1% other. [52] Following growth across West Africa a regional National Spiritual Assembly was elected in 1956. Each denomination set up rural networks by providing schooling and health facilities. Seminaries and universities also exist in Nigeria under Catholic supervision. As with other areas in African continent, Roman Catholics and Anglicans each tended to establish areas of hegemony in southern Nigeria. These traditions are not religious principles, but a cultural identity that is passed on through stories, myths and tales. The Kalo Kato rely entirely on the Quran and they are found among poor communities across northern Nigeria.[11]. The Igbo people are said to be deeply religious. Small missionary movements were allowed to start up, generally in the 1920s, after the middle belt was considered pacified. It is focused on providing the rights here right now. [28] Ahmadiyyas have also established a weekly newspaper called "The Truth" which is the first Muslim newspaper in the country. TRADITIONAL RELIGION IN AFRICA. Traditional Edo religion divides the world into two realms: a visible world of ordinary human experience, and an invisible world of gods, ancestors, and other supernatural beings. Fèzè Lakay Recommended for you Igbo (Ibo), people living chiefly in southeastern Nigeria who speak Igbo, a language of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. It was introduced in Nigeria in the mid-nineteen century (19th) by devoted missionaries from Britain during the colonial era. Gospel Faith Mission 2 many basic similarities in the religious systems—everywhere there is the concept of God (called Burial and funeral rites differ across different culture in Nigeria. The acts in a given traditional carnival is dependent on the type of gods or goddesses to be worshiped. Islam also came to South Western Yoruba-speaking areas during the time of Mansa Musa's Mali Empire.[18]. Winners' Chapel, Christian Reformed Church of Nigeria The ecclesiastical provinces of the Church of Nigeria are: Lagos, Ibadan, Ondo, Bendel, The Niger, Niger Delta, Owerri, Abuja, Kaduna and Jos. The Yoruba people of SouthWest Nigeria still practice their traditional religious beliefs of which the key element is ‘Ayanmo’ (destiny). Bye and large, Protestantism particularly the Pentecostals, Apostolic and evangelicals constitute the major Christian population of Nigeria from the late 1990s to the present[citation needed]. Main religions: Islam (51 per cent), Christianity (47 per cent), traditional religions (1 per cent) Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country, with an estimated 184 million people. While Islam is predominant in the North, Christianity hold the majority in the South. [9] Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution. Presbyterians arrived in the late 17th century in the Ibibio, Annang and Efik land and the Niger Delta area and had missions in the middle belt as well[citation needed]. Meanwhile, the practices are not the same; they have some similarities and differences. Such families had connections to their churches going back to the 19th century and were generally not attracted to the breakaway churches[citation needed]. [64], Irreligion in Nigeria is measured at less than one percent of the population. [37] According to a 2011 Pew report, over 80 million Nigerians are Christians. A lot of Sunni believers contribute in religious practices. These beliefs combined family ghosts with relations to … All major urban centers, all universities, and the new capital of Abuja had areas set aside for the major religions to build churches and mosques and for burial grounds. The rationale behind these weddings is that the union needs to be recognized by religion, the law, and by tradition. These religious campaigns have seen an increase in gun battles between the members of these sects and security forces with loss of lives witnessed on both sides. During the 1980s religious riots occurred in and around the five cities of Kano in 1980, Kaduna in 1982, Bulum-Ketu in 1982, Jimeta in 1984 and Gombe in 1985. Concretely, the values and the ritual rites of the traditional religion of the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria were analyzed side by side with the Christian values and ritual rites. Nigeria has been pushed hither and thither by recurrent crises of regional or sta… In terms of Nigeria’s major ethnic groups’ religious affiliations, the Hausa ethnic group in the North is mostly Muslim, the West which is the Yoruba tribe is divided among mainly Islam, Christianity, and traditional religions, while the Igbos of the East and the Ijaw in the South are predominantly Christians (Catholics) and some practitioners of […] Main religions: Islam (51 per cent), Christianity (47 per cent), traditional religions (1 per cent) Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country, with an estimated 184 million people. With political independence came African priests in both Roman Catholic and Protestant denominations. In traditional oath taking, deities and ancestors are called to be witnesses to the agreement. Christianity it the religion of the Igbo tribe. Christ Apostolic Church Religious affiliation in Nigeria is strongly related to ethnicity, with rather distinct regional divisions between ethnic groups. [33] Poverty has been seen as the major catalyst leading to the rapid increase in the membership of these religious extremist groups. [63] Other individuals leading these religious movements use the media to spread messages which gradually became more intolerant of other religions. Among these was the Aladura (prayer) movement that was spreading rapidly throughout Yoruba land and into the non-Muslim middle belt areas. Below are the three major types of religions in Nigeria and their beliefs. Redeemed Christian Church of God N.K.S.T [13] [29], The Kala Kato are a Nigerian group of Quranists. It is often combined with elements of Christianity and Islam. Religion. Traditional religious worldview as persistent driver of healthcare practices in Southeast Nigeria Background: Worldviews define reality and stipulate the specific attitudes towards each component of reality.This study assessed how traditional religious worldview in southeast Nigeria has persisted as a driver of healthcare practices in the region. Their name means "a mere man said it" referring to the narrators of the sayings of Muhammad. -Olorun refers to the ruler of the Heavens. . The Igbo are an ethnic group in the south eastern part of Nigeria. The major tenet of African traditional religion and belief system lies in the belief that the abode of the gods and goddesses is The associating of adherents of the Grail Message creates the foundation and the outer setting for the holding of hours for the joint worship of God (Hours of Worship) and Grail Festivals. [citation needed] A significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) announced creation of new Owerri mission in Nigeria in 2016. In traditional oath taking, deities and ancestors are called to be witnesses to the agreement. Christianity is based on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ and since its advent into Nigeria by British missionaries, it has expanded to almost every part of the country today. [75], Hinduism spread to Nigeria mainly by immigration of Hindus from India and of Hare Krishna Missionaries. These denominations all believe in Christ but with different doctrines. Egungun, from which the festival is named, refers to all Yoruba masquerades which are connected … "Society in general has more gradually and selectively expanded to accommodate new influences, it is fairly certain that they will continue to assert their distinctive cultural identity in creative and often ingenious ways". [34] The rise of these sects has also been linked to the increase and aiding of religious extremist by politicians for their selfish ambitions. Nigerians believe in spirits, magic, supreme powers etc. The Pew Forum in a 2010 report compared reports from several sources. Just a lot of other African people,Nigerians believe in spirits, magic, supreme powers, one super god etc. At the beginning of the 20th century, most Nigerians were followers of traditional religions, but British colonial policies discouraged this to such an extent that by the time of independence in 1960 the great majority of the people were classified as Muslims or Christians. Although less well-known, African-American churches entered the missionary field in the 19th century and created contacts with Nigeria that lasted well into the colonial period. [citation needed] Many Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods. Major congregations of the larger Anglican and Roman Catholic missions represented elite families of their respective areas, although each of these churches had members from all levels and many quite humble church buildings. [62], Exploitation of the media used to propagate the ideas of the conflict, thereby radicalising each force even more. By the 1980s, African music and even dancing were being introduced quietly into western oriented church services, albeit altered to fit into rituals of Euro-American origin. Africans who follow a traditional religion rely on no scriptures, canonical texts, or holy books to guide them. Most Nigerian Christians are Protestant (broadly defined) though about a quarter are Catholic. [citation needed], Apart from Benin and Warri, which had come in contact with Christianity through the Portuguese as early as the 15th century, most missionaries arrived by sea in the 19th century. Other forms of traditional food include fufu, eba, okra, egusi, and ogbono. A whole lot of followers belong to Maliki School of law that is the Sunni but also, some belong to Shafi’i madhab. Later the religion also became known in some of the South-Western regions. . [60] Although direct conflicts between Christians and Muslims were rare, tensions did flare between the two groups as each group radicalised. It is mostly oral (oral tradition). When people died, their ayanmo connects with Olodumare. It is nowadays a minority religion. New prophets and new religions are bound to continue to spring up in the future. In one instance there was an evangelical campaign organised by the FCS and brought into question why one sect should dominate the campus of the Kafanchan college of education. The three The Nigerian traditional religion is mostly moral. 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